How to improve your searching

In handwritten records, certain letters look similar to, or are nearly indistinguishable from, other letters. And some letters or pairs of letters sound like others. When searching, you may want to try both.

Polish: ą is also written as am example: Ząbek — Zambek
Polish: ę is also written as en example: Lęga — Lenga
Polish: Fr- looks like Tr- example: Frajman — Trajman
Polish: I- is also written as J- example: Icek — Jcek
Polish: ł looks like t example: Całka — Catka
Polish: ó is also written as u example: Król — Krul
Polish: si or sz is also written as ś example: Mosiek, Moszek — Mośek
Cyrillic* (Russian): m
(applies to late 1860s – mid 1910s records)
looks like: t  

Note that ow or ów or ov or óv at the end of a surname is nearly always a suffix that should be dropped. With the very rare cases below, this is not the case. Therefore, try searching for these surnames using “is exactly.”

Fiszow / Fiszof / Fiszhof / Fiszauf / Fischof [and other spellings]
Isakow / Issakow / Izakow / Isaakow [and other spellings]
Dow / Dof / Doff [and other spellings]

Read other topics regarding Polish Jewish genealogy.

Thinking of joining CRARG? Feel free to write to me ( to ask if we have records for your family! —Daniel Kazez, CRARG President (a volunteer/unpaid position)

If you are ready to join CRARG, visit our Pre-Holocaust Database page.